You will need to understand how to use the terminal.
This section is a short introduction in case you are missing a few software packages, want to try out a cutting edge development version of a software or have no system administrator or software package manager to build and install software for you.
Compiling from Source¶
Don’t be afraid young physicist, self-compiling C/C++ projects is easy, fun and profitable!
Compiling a project from source essentially requires three steps:
- configure the project and find its dependencies
- build the project
- install the project
All of the above steps can be performed without administrative rights (“root” or “superuser”) as long as the install is not targeted at a system directory (such as
/usr) but inside a user-writable directory (such as
$HOME or a project directory).
In order to compile projects from source, we assume you have individual directories created to store source code, build temporary files and install the projects to:
# source code mkdir $HOME/src # temporary build directory mkdir $HOME/build # install target for dependencies mkdir $HOME/lib
Note that on some supercomputing systems, you might need to install the final software outside of your home to make dependencies available during run-time (when the simulation runs). Use a different path for the last directory then.
Compling can differ in two principle ways: building inside the source directory (“in-source”) and in a temporary directory (“out-of-source”). Modern projects prefer the latter and use a build system such as [CMake]. An example could look like this
# go to an empty, temporary build project cd $HOME/build rm -rf ../build/* # configurate, build and install into $HOME/lib/project cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$HOME/lib/project $HOME/src/project_to_compile make make install
Often, you want to pass further options to CMake with
-DOPTION=VALUE or modify them interactively with
ccmake . after running the initial cmake command.
The second step which compiles the project can in many cases be parallelized by
In the final install step, you might need to prefix it with
sudo in case
CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX is pointing to a system directory.
Some older projects still build in-source and use a build system called autotools. The syntax is still very similar:
# go to the source directory of the project cd $HOME/src/project_to_compile # configurate, build and install into $HOME/lib/project configure --prefix=$HOME/lib/project make make install
That’s all! Continue with the following chapter to build our dependencies.