# WarmCopper: Average Charge State Evolution of Copper Irradiated by a Laser

- author: Axel Huebl <a.huebl (at) hzdr.de>, Hyun-Kyung Chung
- maintainer: Axel Huebl <a.huebl (at) hzdr.de>

This setup initializes a homogenous, non-moving, copper block irradiated by a laser with 10^18 W/cm^3 as a benchmark for [SCFLY] atomic population dynamics.
We follow the setup from [FLYCHK] page 10, figure 4 assuming a quasi 0D setup with homogenous density of a 1+ ionized copper target.
The laser (not modeled) already generated a thermal electron density at 10, 100 or 1000 eV and a delta-distribution like “hot” electron distribution with 200 keV (directed stream).
The observable of interest is <Z> over time of the copper ions.
For low thermal energies, collisional excitation, de-excitation and recombinations should be sufficient to reach the LTE state after about 0.1-1 ps.
For higher initial temperatures, radiative rates get more relevant and the Non-LTE steady-state solution can only be reached correctly when also adding radiative rates.